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Are There Any Sustainable Options for Grape Processing By-Products?
Grapes are one of the largest fruit crops in the world, while their processing into juice is definitely a minor reality compared to wine-making. In 2013 the world wine production was 27.42 Mton, with 57 % of production in Europe, followed by Americas (25.7 %), Asia (7.5 %), Oceania (5.4 %) and Africa (4.5 %). The top five wine producers resulted France (4.29 Mton), Italy (4.11 Mton), Spain (3.20 Mton), USA (3.22 Mton) and Chile (1.83 Mton).
Either for wine or juice production, grapes processing generates huge amount of residues. At the primary production level, vine shoots (or vine prunings or trimmings) derive from in-field interventions for both the productions, even though different cultivation systems may lead to different amounts of shoots.
At the processing level, also the destemming step is carried out for both juice and wine line, with generation of a second residue: the grape stalks, often referred to as stems. At this point, the grape juice is extracted through pressing and the residue grape marc (often referred to as grape pomace) is obtained.
In the case of grape juice and white wines (with a few exceptions), grape marc is immediately discarded. In the case of red wines (and for some white wines), grape marc is not promptly removed but left with juice (from this point called must in the wine-making process) for a certain fraction of the fermentation period, in order to enhance the extraction of grape constituents (mainly phenolic compounds and pigments).
After this maceration step, grape marc can be taken away from the must, pressed and discarded. After completion of fermentation, the lees are removed (generally by decanting) and the following steps (the whole or only some, depending on the wine type) are carried out: second fermentation (for sparkling wines), ageing (in stainless tank or wooden barrels), clarification, filtration, cold stabilisation (detartration) and bottling. Additional residues are generated from the filtration and stabilisation steps, which are carried out also in the grape juice manufacturing.
The current state-of-the-art handling of grape by-products includes management practices that either degrade these substrates or lead to diminution of their pollution load without getting advance of their content in valuable ingredients (e.g. antioxidants). These practices have a negative ecologic and economic impact to the wineries.
Subsequently, the interest of the scientific community and producers has recently directed to more profitable and so-called sustainable options. This is happening because resources become more restricted and demand grows. Sustainability requires the maximum utilization of all raw materials and by-products produced as well as minimum disposal of waste streams.
In this line, modern wineries must adapt management and valorisation strategies that allow on hand the recovery and recycle of valuable ingredients and on the other hand the generation of new products. Subsequently, there is a need for a new guide reporting the latest developments in this particular direction.
Handbook of Grape Processing By-Products: Sustainable Solutions covers the most recent advances of grape processing by-products management in the name of sustainability. It fills the gap of transfer knowledge between academia and industry by providing a reference for all the wine makers, professionals and producers activated in the field, trying to optimize wineries performance and reduce their environmental impact.
This is conducted by highlighting viable industrial applications and scenarios as well as suggesting solutions to overcome observed limitations. It describes success stories that are already applied in some wineries, whereas it explores the advantages, disadvantages and real potentiality of relevant processes and products in the market. The ultimate goal is to inspire all relevant participants to develop real commercialized applications.
An online book presentation can be viewed below:
The book consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the state of the art in the field of grape processing by-products by denoting the legislative constrains that govern their management in different countries. In addition, it refers the current implemented solutions and the key points that have to take into account during the development of sustainable strategies. Chapter 2 deals with the industrial valorization of grape processing residues within the integrated concept of biorefinery. The rest of the chapter focuses on particular processes and applications of this concept.
For instance, Chapter 3 provides an overview of the vermicomposting process and reports the results of a case study in which white grape marc was vermicomposted on a pilot scale to yield an organic and polyphenol‐free fertilizers. Chapter 4 describes the possibility of reusing vine shoots in the agricultural sector particularly as compost, fertilizer or biostimulant.
Click here to learn more and download chapter 3, Vermicomposting of Winemaking By-Products, for free.
Chapter 5 denotes the main methodologies for the extraction of valuable, biologically active compounds from grape processing by-products, whereas Chapter 6 discusses a case study for the fractionation of phenolic compounds extracted from wine lees using ultrafiltration. Chapter 7 deals with the recovery of high added-value compounds from viticulture and winemaking byproducts by means of emerging extraction technologies.
Chapter 8 concerns a thorough patent survey for the valorization of grape processing by-products in different applications. Finally, Chapters 9, 10 and 11 discuss the application of wine making by-products and recovered products in oenological applications, food products and cosmetics sector, respectively.
Conclusively, the book provides a handbook for agricultural, chemical and environmental engineers as well as food scientists and technologists working in the wine making industry and seeking to improve grape by-products management. In addition, it concerns professionals, researchers, specialists and new product developers working in the edge of food and environmental sectors. It could be used as textbook for ancillary reading in graduates and post-graduate level, and multi-discipline courses dealing with agricultural science, sustainability, wine making, bioresource technology, food and environmental technology. To this direction, it could become a target reference for libraries and Institutes of winemaking (e.g. California USA, Australia, Argentina, Chile, Mediterranean area etc) and other regions.
About the Author
Charis M. Galanakis is an interdisciplinary scientist with a fast-expanding work that balances between food and environment, industry, and academia. His research targets mainly the separation and recovery of functional macro- and micromolecules from different food by-products, as well as their implementation as additives in food and other products. He is the research and innovation director of Galanakis Laboratories (Chania, Greece) and the coordinator of Food Waste Recovery Group of ISEKI Food Association (Vienna, Austria). He serves as an editorial board member and subject editor of Food and Bioproducts Processing and Food Research International, and he has edited 6 books from Academic Press: Food Waste Recovery: Processing Technologies and Industrial Techniques (2015), Innovation Strategies in the Food Industry: Tools for implementation (2016) and Nutraceutical and Functional Food Components: Effects of Innovative Processing Techniques (2017), Olive Mill Waste: Recent advances for the Sustainable Management (2017), Handbook of Grape Processing By-Products: Sustainable Solutions (2017), Handbook of Coffee Processing By-Products: Sustainable Applications (2017) and Sustainable Food Systems From Agriculture to Industry (2018).
See his full portfolio of books here.
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Charis’ latest books are available to order on the Elsevier Store. Use discount code STC317 at checkout and save up to 30% on your very own copy!
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