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International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination 2021: Youth Standing Up Against Racism
On March 21, The International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination is observed annually on the day the police in Sharpeville, South Africa, opened fire and killed 69 people at a peaceful demonstration against apartheid “pass laws” in 1960.
This year’s 2021 theme is “Youth standing up against racism”. It engages the public through #FightRacism, which aims to foster a global culture of tolerance, equality and anti-discrimination and calls on each and every one of us to stand up against racial prejudice and intolerant attitudes.
Young people massively showed their support at the 2020 Black Lives Matter marches, which drew millions of demonstrators worldwide. On the streets, groundswells of youth came together to protest against racial injustice. On social media, they mobilized participation, calling on their peers to speak out, and to stand up for the equal rights of all.
COVID-19 has heavily impacted young people, including those from minority backgrounds. Many are now grappling with an increase in racial discrimination, in addition to severe disruptions to their education; diminished employment prospects; and limited ability to participate in public life, which stymies their individual and social empowerment.
To engage, highlight, and raise awareness on racial discrimination, Elsevier presents a curated list of free access journal articles and book chapters. At Elsevier, we will #Standup4humanrights and send the message that racism is unacceptable everywhere and every time.
In addition to the content collection, Dr. Márcia Balisciano, RELX’s Global Head of Corporate Responsibility, interviews Prof. Jerome Nriagu, Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, and Dr. Jann Murray-Garcia, founding faculty member and associate clinical professor at the Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing at UC Davis. Dr. Murray-Garcia is the co-author of the upcoming Elsevier book, Cultural Humility: History, Concepts, and Cases along with her co-author Dr. Melanie Tervalon, MD, MPH. The book is expected to release in Fall 2022.
Featured Book Chapters Include:
Confronting Prejudice and Discrimination
Chapter 11 – “Navigating Successful Confrontations: What Should I Say and How Should I Say It?”
By Margo J. Monteith, Mason D.Burns, and Laura K.Hildebrand
People often wonder what to say and how to say it during confrontable moments. Through our review and organization of relevant research, we present a “roadmap” for navigating successful confrontations. To prepare for confrontable moments, we argue that people can receive “drivers training” (e.g., to increase bias literacy) and “pack appropriately for the trip” (e.g., bringing optimism). After encountering a confrontable moment, would-be confronters can head directly into a confrontation and approach the ultimate destination of reducing others’ bias. Or, confronters may make a “pit stop” to take advantage of strategies that may help them to preserve positive impressions of themselves in others’ eyes. We review many factors that influence the likelihood of preserving positive impressions and reducing others’ biases, including “road hazards” that are likely to lead to undesired outcomes. Ultimately, this chapter highlights how successful confrontations can be achieved when they are appropriately navigated.
Race and ethnicity imprecisely align with genetic differences based on ancestral origin. Rather, they reflect a complex and interacting mix of social, cultural, and biological factors. While genetic differences clearly contribute to some racial and ethnic disparities, including those in chronic kidney disease (CKD), these disparities are also fueled by the clustering of negative social determinants of health, or social risks, in minority and socially disadvantaged populations. These social risks have clear and strong associations with both CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and contribute to the substantial disparities that exist in CKD and ESRD across racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic lines. This chapter reviews the socially constructed nature of race and ethnicity, discusses the substantial disparities that exist in CKD and ESRD populations across race, ethnicity, and social class, and describes the role that social risks play in the development of CKD and ESRD and in their disparate impact on low-income and racial/ethnic minority populations.
Significant racial health disparities exist at all ages in the United States, but few studies have identified the causal sources that explain their large magnitude or earlier life origins. This chapter reviews the explosion of research over the past 15 years on the role of segregation, and resultant differences in childhood neighborhood quality, as fundamental causes of health disparities over the life course. We highlight the effectiveness of policies and targeted interventions designed to address unequal opportunities that accompany segregated environments in childhood. Programs that ensure more equitable opportunities and hold promise to reduce health disparities encompass education, public health, housing, and the safety net—and form the evidenced-based argument that human capital policy is health policy. A life course conceptual framework outlines how public investments in early childhood and human capital development help address the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage, and ameliorate the persistence and reproduction of health inequality across generations.
Environmental Justice (EJ) is concerned with the fair distribution amongst social groups of environmental quality. The EJ movement grew from concerns first expressed in 1970s United States, that hazards, such as toxic waste disposal facilities, were predominantly located in low income and nonwhite communities. However, despite the abundance of EJ studies, critical reviews subsequently revealed that the evidence for environmental inequality was smaller than first thought, due to a lack of scientific rigor in analysis. More recent studies have provided robust evidence for environmental inequality, including that of population exposure to environmental quality in breach of legal standards intended to protect public health. Guidance on key appraisal issues is presented, addressing selection of study populations, environmental parameters, statistical methods, and a range of spatial analysis issues. Unequal distributions are not necessarily unjust, hence issues relevant to their interpretation are addressed, including: demonstration of cause and effect; alternative theories for observed distributions; and application of justice theory. Practical responses to environmental injustice are reviewed, and the importance of a participatory approach, as recognized by national and international legislation, highlighted. The widening conception of EJ is noted, particularly the importance of justice between nations as a prerequisite to achieving sustainability.
Climate change is causing environmental consequences, including increased temperature, extremes of precipitation, sea level rise, and extreme weather events. Climate change is also causing direct consequences on public health, including heat-related disorders, respiratory and allergic disorders, infectious diseases, and injuries from extreme weather events. It is also causing indirect consequences on public health due to food insecurity, stress migration, and collective violence. All of these consequences create adverse effects on mental health of individuals, communities, and entire nations. At the global level, there is substantial social injustice; countries with the most greenhouse gas emissions suffer the least, and countries with the least emissions suffer the most. At national and local levels, there is much social injustice, with climate change having a disproportionate adverse effect on poor people, minorities, women, children, older people, and others. All sectors of society have responsibilities for addressing climate change, by mitigation and adaptation, while protecting human rights and promoting social justice.
Child and Adolescent Online Risk Exposure
Chapter 12 – “Racial and ethnic diversity in the social ecology of online harassment and cybervictimization: the adolescent-school context”
By Gia Elise Barboza and Lawrence B. Schiamberg
Using the ecological perspective to bullying as a guiding framework, this chapter focuses on the constellation of factors that characterize school environments as the immediate and focal contexts (i.e., the microsystem) for understanding the landscape of cyberbullying victimization risk among students of color. More specifically, we examine the risk and protective factors occurring in the microsystem (i.e., parents, peers, school, and community), exosystem (parental stress), and macrosystem levels (gender role beliefs and stereotypes). We then discuss the implications for research and school-based practice. A review of research will in turn examine the critical dimensions of cyberbullying in relation to hate speech and online harassment, connecting it with (1) broader school factors, including the constellation of actors and roles that involve cyberbullying incidents and which frame the adolescent–school context; (2) characteristics of the microsystem participants—adolescents and schools; (3) factors that influence the quality of the adolescent–school relationship; (4) policy contexts that influence adolescent experiences beyond the adolescent–school microsystem. The latter includes research connecting cyberbullying to the broader system of structural inequality in school policy and practice as well as the developmental assets (e.g., individual characteristics and connection to external supports, including the family and community resources), frequently associated with positive youth development.
Advances in Child Development and Behavior
Chapter 7 – “Adolescent profiles of ethnicity/ race and socieconomic status: Implications for sleep and the role of discrimination and ethnic/racial identity”
By Yuen Mi Cheon, Pak See Ip, and Tiffany Yip
The present study seeks to explore the intersectionality of ethnicity/race and socioeconomic status (SES) among ethnic/racial minority adolescents in their developmental contexts, examining its implications for sleep disparities and the roles of discrimination and ethnic/racial identity (ERI; i.e., adolescents’ understanding and feelings about who they are in relation to their ethnic/racial group). With 350 adolescents (Asian 41.4%, Black, 21.7%, and Latinx 36.9%, female = 69.1%, Mage = 14.27), we conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) to identify latent classes of adolescents’ ethnicity/race, ethnic/racial diversity in their schools and neighborhoods along with SES of their families, schools, and neighborhoods. Next, with hierarchical regression, we tested the association between class membership and subjective and objective sleep duration and quality, followed by the moderating effect of discrimination and ERI. We expected to find adolescents living in low diversity and low SES across various developmental contexts to experience lower levels of subjective and objective sleep duration and quality compared to their counterparts. We also expected to find exacerbating effects of discrimination and ERI exploration, and protective effects of ERI commitment in these associations. Three latent groups were identified (C1: “Black/Latinx adolescents in low/moderate SES families in varying diversity and low SES schools and neighborhoods,” C2: “Predominantly Latinx adolescents in low SES families and moderate diversity and SES schools and neighborhoods,” and C3: “Predominantly Asian adolescents in low/moderate SES families in moderate/high diversity and SES schools and neighborhoods”). The class memberships to C1 and C2 were associated with compromised sleep duration and quality compared to C3. An interaction effect of discrimination was found for C1 in subjective sleep duration and for C2 in objective sleep duration. While no interactions were found for ERI, ERI commitment had a direct association with objective sleep duration and quality. Interpretations and implications for intersectionality approach in studies on sleep disparities and the roles of discrimination and ERI are discussed.
Additional Free Resources Include:
Ross-Kerr and Wood’s Canadian Nursing Issues & Perspectives, 6th Edition
CDN NURSING ISSUES & PERSPECTIVES
Chapter 14 – “Decolonizing and Anti-Oppressive Nursing Practice”
By Sonya L. Jakubec and R. Lisa Bourque Bearskin
This chapter sets out to identify key dimensions of oppression and allyship in nursing, where nurses coming from dominant or privileged groups take action to reject and dismantle conditions of oppression.
The health sector has an important role to play in terms of offering culturally appropriate and relevant care, tackling racism in the health care sector, improving engagement with Indigenous partners, and advocating for decolonizing policies that give control of health and wellness to the Indigenous people of Canada.
Earth & Environmental Science
The fields of Earth science, planetary sciences, and environmental science encompass disciplines critical to the future of our world and its inhabitants. Our well-being depends on a thorough understanding of air and water resources, soil chemistry, atmospheric dynamics, geology, and geochemistry, along with a myriad of other aspects of the environment we live in. Elsevier supports the efforts of researchers and scholars in these areas with content that meets their cross-disciplinary needs: journals, books, eBooks, and online tools that span computer science, chemistry, energy, engineering, biology, agronomy, ecology, environmental impact and many other topics fundamental to the study of our world. Learn more about our Earth and Environmental Science books here.