USB – Class Drivers

By: , Posted on: October 19, 2016

nucleus-usb-function-class-drivers

I have frequently written about various aspects of USB and presented many seminar and conference sessions on the topic. I find it interesting that, considering that USB is such a straightforward technology for most users to utilize, its deployment in devices can be quite challenging.

A particular area of confusion is USB Class Drivers. The word “class” is very overloaded in the software world – it has numerous meanings. And the term “driver” is far from precise. So, it is unsurprising that the subject provokes discussion …

In the world of USB we talk about “hosts”, which sit at one end of the bus and are in control – a PC is a typical host. We also talk about “functions”, which are peripheral devices at the other end of the bus; mice, keyboards, storage devices, scanners and printers are all common examples of USB functions.

Both the USB host and function need USB support software – a USB stack. On a Windows PC, the (host) USB stack is provided by Microsoft as part of the operating system. For a function, the USB stack is part of the embedded software that controls the device and would be typically supplied by a vendor of embedded software IP, such as Mentor Graphics. Incidentally, although a peripheral typically needs a USB function stack, an embedded device might be required to function as a host, in which case a USB host stack is required (as well as a function stack, perhaps). Again, this is likely to be available from a company like Mentor.

Part of a USB stack (on both ends of the bus) characterizes what kind of device is being interfaced – this is the USB Class Driver. A number of standard class drivers have been defined and may be expected to be available with any USB stack. These include: audio, communications, human interface, mass storage, still image and video. Some others are more specialized and less widely implemented, such as personal healthcare and device firmware upgrade.

If you are designing a device with a USB interface, it needs to be associated with a class driver on both ends of the bus. Although you can create a custom class driver for the function stack, it is generally much less work to make your device look as much like a standard as possible and, hence, make use of a supplied class driver. A strong incentive to follow this path is the requirement for a matching class driver at the host end. If you create a custom class driver for the function, you might need to also need to do more work for the host, which could include Windows, macOS, Linux etc.

I have an example of a USB device where the designers clearly took this approach: a wireless remote control device for PowerPoint on my laptop. I can hold this tiny device in my hand and advance slides during a presentation without having to approach my computer. It transmits signals to a tiny receiver which is plugged into a USB port. When this is connected to the PC, it “pretends” to be a keyboard, so the standard human interface class driver in the Windows USB stack is used. The device only generates three possible keystrokes: right-arrow, left-arrow and ESC. This is a good example of how to economically deploy USB and result in a device which is simplicity itself for the user.

Read more from Colin about embedded software on SciTech Connect


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About the Author

Colin WallsColin Walls (@Colin_Walls) is an embedded software technologist at Mentor Graphics (@mentor_graphics), the leading EDA software company.

You can read more about Colin and his work on embedded systems at The Colin Walls Blog at Mentor Graphics here. Connect with Colin online here:

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