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The Social Science of Saving Snow Leopards
Stretching most of the way across the small Central Asian country of Kyrgyzstan, the Tien Shan (which translates to Celestial Mountains) are a stronghold for the rare and endangered snow leopard. With as few as 4,500 of the shy and elusive cats spread across some 2 million square kilometers and 12 countries, Kyrgyzstan may harbor as many as 400 snow leopards. And there among the craggy peaks a unique social science experiment of sorts is taking place, with the aim of ensuring a future for the big cat.
In the field of wildlife conservation, biology and ecology are often the sciences employed. But when a big predator shares its mountain home with humans, many of them pastoralists, conservation must take on a distinct social science context. One such example is in Kyrgyzstan where Panthera, a US non-profit established to save the world’s wild cats, is helping communities secure the rights to manage local wildlife, reap economic benefits from their stewardship, and ultimately turn former hunters and poachers into staunch defenders of snow leopards and their prey; the wild mountain sheep and goats of Asia’s high peaks. A recent Smithsonian magazine cover story provides detail on this social science approach to big cat conservation.
While the community-based conservation program in the Tien Shan is unique, it is not the only example of how local people are being brought into snow leopard conservation. In fact, it is almost the norm for this species and the myriad approaches are explored in detail in our new book – Snow Leopards – the first volume of the series, Biodiversity of the World – Conservation from Genes to Landscapes, now available from Elsevier/Academic Press.
One of the longest standing community-based programs described in the book is Snow Leopard Enterprises, which was initiated in Mongolia in the late 1990s. In that program, poor herding families have been provided access to international markets for their traditional handicrafts. In turn, they pledge not to kill snow leopards in retaliation for livestock losses to the cats. With over $150,000 in sales a year, and a marked reduction in persecution of snow leopards, it is the epitome of a win-win conservation success story, for local livelihoods and wildlife conservation.
In Pakistan, a livestock insurance program compensates herders for livestock losses, while in Ladakh, India, such livestock losses are reduced by building predator-proof corrals. Where livestock losses to disease far outweigh that to snow leopards, a vaccination program has greatly reduced disease-related deaths, making losses to predators much easier to tolerate. All in all, these and several other novel social science driven conservation programs, tailored to local conditions, are addressing basic human needs while fostering tolerance of snow leopards.
With such innovation and multiple successes on the conservation front, one might think snow leopards are well understood and their future bright. But as several chapters in our book point out, they remain a mysterious, poorly understood, difficult to study species which face multiple threats across their vast range. And even the extent of that range is mostly unknown! Covering perhaps as much as 3 million km2 of mountain habitat in central Asia, their actual presence in much of their suspected range is listed only as ‘possible’. Even less is known about population size or trend, with ‘guestimates’ ranging from as few as 4,500 to over 10,000.
Yet the new book includes multiple chapters that explain how such knowledge gaps are being filled, as technological and methodological advances are brought to bear on the enigmatic cat. GPS-satellite collars are helping to answer basic ecological questions on the species, from range size and overlap, to cub production and dispersal. Camera traps and non-invasive genetics, in concert with state-of-the-art spatial analyses, are finally providing robust population data from diverse parts of the cat’s range, many of which are included in the book’s country-specific status updates.
With nearly 200 authors contributing to 47 chapters, Snow Leopards is the first book to bring nearly everything we know today about this iconic cat into a single source. We are certain this book will be of interest to everyone from armchair naturalists, students and range-state decisions makers, to seasoned snow leopard conservationists.
Snow Leopards will publish on June 20th of 2016. Visit the Elsevier Store to preorder your very own copy! Use discount code STC215 at checkout and save up to 30%!
About the Co-Editors
Dr. Tom McCarthy, Panthera’s Director of Snow Leopard Program, began his conservation career studying brown bears, black bears, mountain goats and caribou in Alaska in the early 1980s. A strong interest in international conservation led him to Mongolia in 1992, where, under the guidance of Dr. George Schaller, he took over the management of a long-term snow leopard research project. This six year study was the basis for his Ph.D. dissertation, completed at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst, and made him the first biologist to use satellite radio-collars on snow leopards.
Along with snow leopards, Dr. McCarthy has conducted ground-breaking research on wild camels and Gobi brown bears, two of Mongolia’s rarest animals. After a short stint in the Caribbean helping the island nation of Anguilla develop a protected area system, McCarthy became the Science and Conservation Director of the Snow Leopard Trust in 2000 and has since led their extensive science and community-based conservation programs across much of snow leopard range in Asia. Dr. McCarthy has established snow leopard conservation projects in Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, India, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Pakistan. In addition, his personal efforts have catalyzed national snow leopard conservation plans in Mongolia and Pakistan, and he has contributed to similar efforts in Bhutan, India and Uzbekistan.
From 2002-2009, Dr. McCarthy served as Executive Director of the Snow Leopard Network, a global consortium of more than 200 professionals involved in snow leopard research and conservation. Within the past few years, his research has focused on the development of genetic methods for monitoring wild snow leopard populations and the initiation of a new generation of snow leopard research in Pakistan using state-of-the-art satellite GPS collars. In collaboration with the Snow Leopard Trust, Dr. McCarthy and Dr. George Schaller have most recently chosen another snow leopard research site within Mongolia, continuing the first ever long-term intensive study of this wild cat.
Dr. McCarthy joined Panthera in July 2008 and in addition to the GPS-collaring program in Pakistan, he is now leading two new Panthera initiatives. The first is a range-wide assessment of snow leopard genetics that seeks to identify movement corridors which are critical to maintaining the health and genetic diversity of the species. The second is a revision of methods by which snow leopard populations can be monitored over time, including such novel non-invasive approaches as fecal genetics, camera trapping and statistical modeling based on sign surveys.
Dr. David Mallon began researching the ecology of large mammals of the Himalaya Central Asia and Mongolia in 1980, completing an MSc thesis on the ecology of the snow leopard and a PhD on its main prey species in Ladakh, India. Since then, he has worked on projects associated with snow leopards and their prey, including action planning, field surveys and training in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Mongolia and China. He was a member of the Steering Committee of the Snow Leopard Network from its inception in 2003 to 2008 and served as Chair of SLN from 2012 to 2015. He is a Research Fellow in the Division of Biology and Conservation Ecology at Manchester Metropolitan University, UK and an Honorary Conservation Fellow of the Zoological Society of London.
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